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Fluorometers

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  • Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S

    Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S

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    Highly compact:
    Measuring optical head with a standard cuvette for sample suspensions of aquatic or terrestrial plants.

    Typical samples:
    Suspensions of photosynthetically active organisms, small leaves, or leaf segments.

  • Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F

    Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F

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    Supported investigations:
    - PAM measurements
    - Fast kinetic measurements of OJIP
    - Flash fluorescence induction
    - State transitions etc.

    Time resolution of 1 µs.

  • Algal Online Monitor

    Algal Online Monitor

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    Flow-through monitoring:
    Enables detection and continuous quantifying of photosynthetically active microorganisms in rivers, lakes, or artificial water reservoirs.

    Detection limit: 30 ng Chl/l.

  • OnlineFlow Fluorometer

    OnlineFlow Fluorometer

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    Complete, autonomously operated measuring station intended for continuous in situ monitoring of active fluorescence emitted by photosynthetic freshwater and marine microorganisms.

Fluorometers

Double-Modulation Fluorometer FL 3500 measures Chl-fluorescence signal with a time resolution of up to 1 µs in the Fast FL3500/F version or up to 4 µs in the Standard FL3500/S version. Measured fluorescence emission is excited by a set of light-emitting diodes that generate short measuring flashes; the photochemistry is driven by single-turnover flashes or by continuous actinic irradiance. Chlorophyll fluorescence is detected by a PIN photodiode and digitized by a 16-bit A/D converter. The instrument supports Pulse Amplitude Modulation measurements and, at the same time, can capture fast OJIP transients or perform rapid measurements of QA- reoxidation kinetics, S-states, or of the effective antenna size. The major novel feature of this fluorometer is the capacity of the instrument to generate rectangular actinic flashes of extremely high power. Full reduction of QA acceptor can be achieved within 25 µs and the instrument can measure fluorescence induction during such a single-turnover saturating flash. This technique is used to determine the effective antenna size of the Photosystem II as well as its heterogeneity and connectivity without disturbing the measured system by DCMU or other herbicides. Photosynthetically active samples, either suspensions, leaves, or even corals, can be investigated for their photochemical yields, quenching parameters, state transitions, or for the kinetics of photosynthetic redox reactions.

The Double-Modulation Fluorometer is manufactured in two basic versions: Standard and Fast. The other two products - Algal Online Monitor and OnlineFlow Fluorometer - are intended for continuous monitoring of photosynthetic microorganisms.

PSI fluorometers measure:
Various Chl fluorescence parameters, ratios, and quenching coefficients that provide information on the functionality of the photosynthetic apparatus. These are five basic fluorescence parameters - F0, Fm, F0, Fm', Fs - and a number of differences and fluorescence ratios. Such as, for instance:

  • Maximum quantum yield of Photosystem II
  • Non-photochemical quenching NPQ
  • Effective quantum yield of Photosystem II
  • Non-photochemical quenching of variable Chl fluorescence
  • Photochemical quenching of variable Chl fluorescence

Other supported protocols:

  • Flash fluorescence induction (one flash)
  • Fast OJIP transients
  • Rapid QA-reoxidation kinetics
  • S-states
  • Effective antenna size
  • PSII connectivity (J parameter)

How PSI fluorometers measure:
Measured fluorescence emission is excited by a set of light emitting diodes that generate measuring flashes. The photochemistry is driven by single-turnover flashes or by continuous actinic irradiance. The FL3500 has two input channels. One channel is used for a PIN photodiode with 1 MHz A/D converter and 16-bit resolution. The second channel can be configured according to a customer’s request.


Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S
Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F
Algal Online Monitor
OnlineFlow Fluorometer

Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S

Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S

Highly compact:
Measuring optical head with a standard cuvette for sample suspensions of aquatic or terrestrial plants.

Typical samples:
Suspensions of photosynthetically active organisms, small leaves, or leaf segments.

Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F

Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F

Supported investigations:
- PAM measurements
- Fast kinetic measurements of OJIP
- Flash fluorescence induction
- State transitions etc.

Time resolution of 1 µs.

Algal Online Monitor

Algal Online Monitor

Flow-through monitoring:
Enables detection and continuous quantifying of photosynthetically active microorganisms in rivers, lakes, or artificial water reservoirs.

Detection limit: 30 ng Chl/l.

OnlineFlow Fluorometer

OnlineFlow Fluorometer

Complete, autonomously operated measuring station intended for continuous in situ monitoring of active fluorescence emitted by photosynthetic freshwater and marine microorganisms.

Version Characteristics Price
FL 3500/S
Standard Fluorometer FL 3500-S
Includes measuring optical head with a cuvette, multipurpose control unit, power supply, FluorWin software, user’s guide. 8.490 €
FL 3500/F
Fast Fluorometer FL 3500-F
Includes measuring optical head with a cuvette, multipurpose control unit, power supply, FluorWin software, user’s guide. 9.990 €
AOM
Algal Online Monitor
Robust, portable device for flow-through measuring of fluorescence. Includes FluorPen 1.0 software for data collection and external communication. 7.990 €
FFL-2012
OnlineFlow Fluorometer
Complete, autonomously operated FRRF measuring station including the fluorometer and control PC. Intended for use of ferries. 19.000 €
Optional Accessories
Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Infra-Red LED Unit
Allows measuring Fo' and PAR absorbance. It is also used during quenching analysis protocol. 1.490 €
Optional Accessories
Fluorometer Optional Accessories - SuperHead
Fluorometer standard configuration can be enhanced by adding a second SuperHead. This SuperHead can be constructed with respect to customer's experimental needs: specific LED colors (Blue, Cyan, Amber) and detection bands (ChlA, ChlB). 3.490 €
Optional Accessories
Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Thermoregulator TR 2000
Includes control unit and temperature controller. 2.999 €
Optional Accessories
Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Magnetic Stirrer
For uniform sample stirring. Can be controlled manually or by the Fluorometer Control Unit. 998 €
Optional Accessories
Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Oxygen Detector Module
Serves for oxygen evolution detection based on dynamic quenching of fluorescence (no electrode included). 1.550 €
Optional Accessories
Fluorometer Optional Accessories - Oxygen Electrode *
A supplement to oxygen detector module. 690 €